Trash: What size is your
environmental footprint?


Every day, the average American produces 4.9 pounds of solid waste. All the single-use plastic,
product packaging, food waste and other waste sources quickly add up to flood our country with
trash due to our rising waste production.


However, while this is the average figure, every one of us has the power to change the
environmental footprint of our own life – and limiting waste production is one of the best places to
start. There are also some striking differences between states, which show more insight into how
much waste you might be producing if you’re not considering your environmental footprint yet, as
well as how easy it could be for you to change your habits.


A lowering share of our waste production ends up in landfills

The good news is that while we are producing more trash than ever before, we are sending less
trash to landfills than we were in the 1960s. This is thanks to solutions such as recycling and
composting, which help us lower the overall environmental footprint of the average American.


Incineration, while it has its own environmental issues, is also helping cut down on landfill waste, as
it can reduce the volume of the waste (the remains of which are sent to landfill after burning) to as
much as 10% of the original volume.


State-level recycling initiatives

Some states are implementing simple policies dedicated to reducing waste production per capita.

For example, Californians can return drink containers to recycling centers to receive 5 or 10 cents
back. The state is a leader when it comes to recycling beverage containers thanks to this simple


Unfortunately, this is not quite the norm in the rest of the country – only 22 U.S. states have
mandatory recycling laws in place.


Landfills keep growing

Despite our share of waste being sent to landfills being reduced, landfills keep growing – because
waste in them lacks access to oxygen and cannot decompose. This is even true for food waste, which
can still look recently discarded decades after it has been deposited in a landfill. On top of that, the
waste produces methane – a greenhouse gas 84 times more potent than CO2 in the short term.


While it wouldn’t be fair to blame all the waste on the states with largest landfill areas, as it is often
transported to be landfilled from state to state, there are some which stand out. Michigan, Indiana
and Illinois hold the most landfill waste ranked respectively, while Connecticut holds the least
(largely because it accepts much less trash from other states). The states with most landfill waste
also have some of the largest proportions of privately-owned landfills, which are more likely to
import waste from other states.

The waste we send to landfills most often

You may be wondering – what type of waste is sent to landfills most often? Knowing this could help
you substantially reduce your contribution to the waste production crisis.

Food waste leads the ranks, with plastic waste as close second. Along with paper, the three account
for half of all waste being sent to landfills nationwide.

While some of these materials would decompose quickly in a compost, they may take decades to
break down in a landfill, due to the lack of access to optimum conditions. Additionally, let’s not
forget that plastic waste never truly decomposes – it only falls apart into smaller and smaller


Zoonotic, Covid-19 Pandemic, and the Environment

Covid-19 pandemic has made a huge impact on lives at global levels. The whole world has suffered. Over 24 million have been infected, almost 17 million have recovered and over 830,000 have died. People are still getting sick, many more in serious/critical condition, and struggling to recover from its devastating effects on the body. Businesses have been affected, and many of them that were already struggling collapsed during the forced lockdown. Many people lost their jobs when businesses were closed. Others temporarily lost their income during lockdown periods. To date, many flights are still suspended and country borders are closed to make sure that no new cases of covid-19 are imported into the country, any country. As a result, the tourism industry everywhere is suffering.

Zoonotic disease


Covid-19 is a zoonotic disease, meaning that it is caused by pathogens that move from animals to humans and cause illness in humans. According to scientists, the virus that causes covid-19 is called SARS-Cov-2. They claim that it developed directly or indirectly from a β-coronavirus (one of the SARS-like group of viruses) that is naturally found in bats and pangolins in the Far East. It is said that the first ever case of covid-19 was a woman who worked daily at a food market selling shrimp. How she contracted the disease is not clear. What is known is that all sorts of animals are sold at these markets. Since scientists are almost 100% sure that covid-19 definitely came from animals to humans, it is an environmental disease with implications of public health.

Environmental causes of Covid-19


Modern life has contributed a lot to the outbreak of covid-19 and other zoonotic diseases. In the past 50 years, the human population has doubled and the global economy has grown fourfold. Also, there has been a huge migration of humans from rural to urban areas. 

These two factors have led to the need to clear forests in order to create human settlements, agricultural land and industries to support the growing population. This has drastically reduced land that is available for wildlife, and destroyed natural buffers that used to exist between humans and wild animals. In their search for living space, animals find themselves living closer to humans than they used to do before. 

Climate change has also contributed to the rise of zoonotic disease. Changes in temperature and humidity may have affected the survival of microbes. Apparently, scientists and the United Nations Environmental Program expect epidemics to become more frequent in future. One of the major causes of climate change is deforestation for the sake of making paper and to create ranches for meat and dairy animals. 

In our efforts to create more food for the growing world population, we have adopted intensive farming methods and the overuse of antimicrobial drugs in farm animals. When people eat the flesh and milk of these animals, they also ingest the antimicrobial drugs. When they get sick, they get more antibiotics. As a result, pathogens have become more resistant to drugs, making it difficult to treat any disease outbreak.

What can be done about it?


Covid-19 has taught us that there is a very strong link between human health and the environment. However, animals and microbes can’t help their natural actions in a changing environment. Therefore, it is up to humans to do something about the situation to prevent future epidemics. 

1. We have to stop destroying forests in order to grow more food for humans and find different ways to grow food. 


2. We must recycle most of the paper that we use. That will reduce the need to cut more trees.


3. We must change our technology so that we reduce emission of fuel, agricultural and industrial fumes into the atmosphere, causing climate change. 


4. National governments can create laws that prevent further destruction of forests to create cattle ranches. The reduced availability of meat and dairy products will force people to rely more on plant foods, which are generally known to be more nutritious than animal foods.


5. Governments in Asia and South-East Asia can create laws to reduce the sale of wild animals under unsanitary and unhygienic conditions in informal markets. They cannot ban the sale outright because this will simply drive the trade underground. They should focus on hygiene.

Environmental impact of covid-19

Pollution reduction

The lockdown in almost every country reduced pollution and many large cities had a huge drop in air pollution. The readings from the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite showed a substantial reduction in NO2 concentrations over Rome, Madrid, and Paris, the first European cities to implement strict quarantine measures. 

Beaches, which generally suffer from pollution in the form of waste, looked quite clean during lockdown. 

However, the positive outcomes were temporary. As more cities have been emerging from lockdown, pollution is rising again.

Masks and other personal protective clothing

On the negative side, covid-19 necessitates the wearing of disposable masks and other protective clothing by medical staff. There has been a huge increase in the number of these items that are being discarded after use. Most of them are made from material that include plastic, and they are not biodegradable. These items are now a health risk, considering that they might have viruses and they are being thrown away in garbage bags.

Recycling suspended

Authorities in many countries are worried about the spread of coronavirus in recycling centers. Some countries, such as the USA, have suspended recycling programs while some European countries have restricted waste management. 

Shopping has changed too

Companies used to encourage consumers to bring their bags to carry groceries in order to reduce the amount of waste. Now, many of them have switched to single-use packaging in an effort to reduce transmission of covid-19. For safety, many consumers now do their shopping online and this necessitates the use of more packaging during delivery. As a result, there is an increase in organic and inorganic domestic waste as a direct effect of the Covid-19 pandemic. 

Strong environmental policies required


Covid-19 has been a wake-up call. It taught us there is a strong link between human health and the environment. We do not exist in a vacuum. We are part of the ecosystem, whether we are rural or urban. We should therefore look after the environment in order to prevent outbreaks similar to, or worse than, covid-19. We must find ways to reduce destruction of forests and other natural wildlife habitats. We must find ways to recycle everything to prevent a direct destruction of our air, soil, water and trees.

Green Belt Movement

"Vanguard of the Environment Movement"

The Green Belt Movement (GBM) was founded by Professor Wangari Maathai in 1977 under the auspices of the National Council of Women of Kenya (NCWK) to respond to the needs of rural Kenyan women who reported that their streams were drying up, their food supply was less secure, and they had to walk further and further to get firewood for fuel and fencing. GBM encouraged the women to work together to grow seedlings and plant trees to bind the soil, store rainwater, provide food and firewood, and receive a small monetary token for their work.

Shortly after beginning this work, Professor Maathai saw that behind the everyday hardships of the poor—environmental degradation, deforestation, and food insecurity—were deeper issues of disempowerment, disenfranchisement, and a loss of the traditional values that had previously enabled communities to protect their environment, work together for mutual benefit, and to do both selflessly and honestly. The Green Belt Movement instituted seminars in civic and environmental education, now called Community Empowerment and Education seminars (CEE), to encourage individuals to examine why they lacked agency to change their political, economic, and environmental circumstances. Participants began to understand that for years they had been placing their trust in leaders who had betrayed them and that they were sabotaging their lives by not working for the common good and failing to use their natural resources wisely.

Consequently, the Green Belt Movement began to advocate for greater democratic space and more accountability from national leaders. It fought against land grabbing and the encroachment of agriculture into the forests. It contested the placement of a tower block in Uhuru Park in downtown Nairobi and joined others to call for the release of political prisoners. In recent years, it has extended its reach internationally to campaign and advocate on climate change, the importance of Africa’s rainforests in the Congo, to initiate the mottainai campaign—an effort to instill the notions of “reduce, reuse, recycle” in Kenya and around the world—and has partnered with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in its Billion Tree Campaign.

After being awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize in 2004, Professor Maathai’s profile and that of the Green Belt Movement were raised worldwide. Prof. Maathai was appointed Goodwill Ambassador for the Congo Basin Forest Ecosystem, the world’s “second lung” after the Amazon Rainforest. Her four books (The Green Belt MovementUnbowedThe Challenge for Africa, and Replenishing the Earth) and the documentary Taking Root: The Vision of Wangari Maathai expanded on and deepened the key concepts behind the Green Belt Movement’s work and approach.

The Green Belt Movement continued under Professor Maathai’s leadership, as founder and Chair of the Board, until her untimely death September 25th, 2011 at the age of 71.